World Mosquito Day, observed on August 20th every year, holds immense importance as it commemorates Sir Ronald Ross’s discovery in 1897, establishing the link between female mosquitoes and malaria transmission . This day serves as a reminder of the dangers posed by mosquitoes and the urgent need for effective strategies to combat mosquito-borne diseases.
Unraveling the Global Surge of Mosquito-borne Diseases
The climate crisis is contributing to the escalating prevalence of mosquitoes on a global scale. A recent report from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention highlights the emergence of locally acquired malaria cases in the United States after several decades . According to Laura Paddison, an International Climate Editor, the combination of rising temperatures, increased frequency of heat waves, and the occurrence of stagnant water due to storms create favorable conditions for mosquito proliferation . The elevated temperatures associated with climate change not only extend the lifespan of mosquitoes but also expedite their maturation process, leading to a surge in population size . As mosquito populations continue to rise, the urgency for effective strategies to combat mosquito-borne diseases grow.
Furthermore, the inclination of people to spend more time outdoors during warmer periods, coinciding with peak mosquito activity, coupled with the unintentional creation of additional mosquito breeding sites due to the expansion of green spaces in urban areas aimed at providing cooling effects, exacerbates the issue . Consequently, effective climate mitigation strategies are crucial in minimizing the risk posed by mosquitoes and the diseases they carry.
Global Impact of Mosquito-borne Diseases
The World Health Organization (WHO) reports an alarming increase in the incidence and geographical distribution of mosquito-borne diseases, such as chikungunya and dengue, which have now emerged as significant public health challenges around the world. The American Region reported 3.1 million cases, with more than 25 000 classified as severe . A high number of cases were reported in Bangladesh (101 000), Malaysia (131 000) Philippines (420 000), and Vietnam (320 000) in Asia . In some American Region countries, such as Bolivia, an alarming surge in dengue cases is evident, with a recorded count of 31,283 cases and 50 deaths reported between January and February 2023 . Similarly, Paraguay reported 40,984 chikungunya cases, including 46 deaths between October 2022 and March 2023 . Additionally, Peru experienced a significant impact, reporting more than 20,000 cases of mosquito-borne diseases during the initial three months of 2023 .
Dengue endemic is in over 100 countries in the WHO Regions of Africa, the Americas, the Eastern Mediterranean, South-East Asia, and the Western Pacific, with the Americas, South-East Asia, and Western Pacific regions being the most seriously affected, and Asia representing approximately 70% of the global disease burden . Malaria also remains a significant health concern in Sub-Saharan Africa with 3 out of 10 children being infected . These data underscore the urgent need for advanced in vitro rapid diagnostic tests to facilitate timely detection and appropriate management.
The Impact of Mosquito-borne Diseases
Mosquito-borne diseases pose a significant impact on global health, causing a substantial burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There are many different types of mosquito-borne diseases but the most common ones are Malaria, Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika.
Malaria, a parasitic infection transmitted by Anopheline mosquitoes, affects an estimated 219 million individuals annually and leads to over 400,000 deaths, with children under the age of 5 being the most vulnerable . Its symptoms can range from mild to severe, with early signs including fever, headache, and chills . Severe cases may present with extreme fatigue, seizures, difficulty breathing, and organ failure . Prompt diagnoses are critical to prevent the infection from progressing to life-threatening stages.
Dengue, the most prevalent viral infection transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, poses a grave threat to public health, with approximately 96 million symptomatic cases and an estimated 40,000 deaths occurring each year . While many cases are asymptomatic or mild, some individuals experience severe symptoms, such as high fever, severe headache, pain behind the eyes, muscle and joint pains, and swollen glands . Overall, the high burden of mosquito-borne diseases shows the critical need for fast and reliable diagnostics.
Chikungunya has become a global concern with outbreaks reported in over 110 countries and is characterized by an abrupt onset of fever, severe joint pain, joint swelling, muscle pain, headache, nausea, and fatigue . Due to the similarity of symptoms with dengue and Zika, chikungunya is often misdiagnosed, leading to challenges in reporting accurate numbers of affected individuals . Patients at the extreme of the age spectrum, such as newborns and elders with underlying medical conditions are at a higher risk of developing severe symptoms. With its widespread transmission and the challenge of accurate diagnosis, efforts in control and research are essential to mitigate the impact of chikungunya.
Similar to Dengue, Zika virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes . While some individuals remain asymptomatic, others may experience symptoms such as rash, fever, conjunctivitis, muscle pain, malaise, and headache lasting for 2-7 days . Of greater concern is the virus’s impact during pregnancy, which can lead to severe outcomes such as microcephaly, congenital malformations, preterm birth, and miscarriage . Notably, recent reports indicate an outbreak of Zika virus in India, and the infection has been documented in a total of 89 countries and territories . Vigilant surveillance and preventive measures are crucial to address this ongoing public health challenge.
How Artron’s Rapid Diagnostic Tests Help Combat Mosquito-borne Diseases
Artron’s range of products, including the Dengue Virus IgG/IgM Antibody Test, Zika IgG/IgM Antibody Test, Chikungunya IgG/IgM Test, and Malaria (Pf/Pan) Antigen Test, offer invaluable tools for healthcare professionals to effectively combat these illnesses. The urgency in initiating appropriate treatment for mosquito-borne diseases, especially malaria and dengue, can be life-saving.
With the urgency of timely treatment for diseases like malaria and dengue, Artron’s rapid tests empower healthcare providers to take prompt action, potentially saving lives. In regions where mosquito-borne diseases are prevalent, such as the Americas where chikungunya and dengue have become public health challenges , the deployment of our rapid diagnostic tests can help significantly support disease surveillance and control. Moreover, the simplicity and ease of use of these tests can help healthcare providers at various levels, including primary healthcare centers and remote clinics, to efficiently conduct diagnostics.
Mosquito bites and mosquito prevention are recurring concerns, especially in regions with high mosquito activity. By offering efficient diagnostic tools, we take pride in supporting World Mosquito Day, ensuring swift disease detection, and contributing to global efforts aimed at reducing the impact of mosquito-borne illnesses on public health.
 World Mosquito Day and Sir Ronald Ross | RSTMH. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.rstmh.org/news-blog/news/world-mosquito-day-and-sir-ronald-ross
 Paddison, L. (2023, June 29). The mosquito era: As the world warms, these insects are thriving – and bringing disease. CNN. Retrieved from https://www.cnn.com/2023/06/29/world/mosquitoes-spread-climate-dengue-malaria-scn/index.html
 Health Alert Network (HAN) – 00494 | Locally acquired malaria cases identified in the United States. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://emergency.cdc.gov/han/2023/han00494.asp
 Geographical expansion of cases of dengue and chikungunya beyond the historical areas of transmission in the Region of the Americas. (2023, March 23). World Health Organization. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/emergencies/disease-outbreak-news/item/2023-DON448
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 Chilot, D., Mondelaers, A., Alem, A. Z., Asres, M. S., Yimer, M. A., Toni, A. T., & Ayele, T. A. (2023). Pooled prevalence and risk factors of malaria among children aged 6–59 months in 13 sub-Saharan African countries: A multilevel analysis using recent malaria indicator surveys. PLOS ONE, 18(5), e0285265. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0285265
 World Health Organization: WHO. (2023). Malaria. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/malaria
 World Health Organization: WHO. (2023). Dengue and severe dengue. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/dengue-and-severe-dengue
 World Health Organization: WHO. (2022). Chikungunya. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/chikungunya
 World Health Organization: WHO. (2022b). Zika virus. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/zika-virus